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Skyline Soaring Club, LLC.

Skyline Soaring Club Training Syllabus

2018

The use of this training syllabus is intended for the instructors, students and members of Skyline Soaring Club, Inc; located in Front Royal Virginia. Other commercial or non-profit organizations and instructors may also use this material - see sections on "License and Restrictions" and "Using the Training Syllabus on Paper" under the heading "Non-Skyline Instructor Use"

Flight Instructors, web masters and authors outside of Skyline Soaring Club are welcome to use any or all of Skyline Soaring Club's training materials contained in this document, as they see fit, free of charge from Skyline Soaring Club, provided the conditions are met under the Creative Commons License version 3.0. Full details about this license can be found at the following URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/us/

Chief Flight Instructor: Piet Barber
Revised: 5 December 2017

The contents of this syllabus is the result of collaborative efforts of the Certified Flight Instructors for Skyline Soaring Club, Inc; operating out of Front Royal, VA. Feedback or corrections for the Skyline Soaring Training Syllabus can be sent to the Chief Flight Instructor, Piet Barber. pbarber@skylinesoaring.org. Feedback is welcome, especially for suggestions on external links.

The training syllabus is a living document. Clubs that use the syllabus are strongly encouraged to subscribe to the Skyline Syllabus Mailing List.  Any updates to the contents of the syllabus are automatically mailed as the changes are made.  To subscribe, visit the website http://skylinesoaring.org/mailman/listinfo/syllabus .  Nobody is permitted to send mail to that mailing list except for the site administrator, and only when updates are made to the training syllabus.  

License and RestrictionsCreative Commons Logo

You are free:

Under the following conditions:

With the understanding that:

Other Rights - In no way are any of the following rights affected by the license:

Notice - For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. The best way to do this is with a link to http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/us/

Syllabus Usage (General)

Transition Pilots

Pilots already possessing an FAA Rating, but for a different category, (such as Airplane, Single Engine Land, Rotorcraft, Lighter-Than-Air, etc.), are NOT considered by the FAA as a "student pilot." This pilot is a rated pilot seeking to add a new category rating. However, as far as Skyline Soaring Club's program is concerned, the flight instructors will regard this candidate identically to an unrated student pilot. The transition pilot will be put through the same program that an ab-initio pilot would receive. The transition pilot will probably go through the training program much more quickly, but the Skyline Instructors must verify that the candidate meets or exceeds all of the requirements that a first-solo §61.87 student would before his first solo (including the pre-solo written test). Upon completion of the training program, the transition pilot will receive a §61.31 (c)(3) endorsement, and not a §61.87 endorsement, like a student pilot would.

New Pilots (Starting from Scratch)

The Training Syllabus covers all of the required areas that are specified in 14 CFR §61.87. Each lesson plan is a sample of what is to come. In each lesson plan is a section of required reading. It is understood that the student will have read each of the items in the required reading section before coming to fly with the instructor. Failure to do reading assignments ahead of time is a consistent and reliable indicator of delayed progress. Delayed progress adds unnecessary personal expense to complete the training program.

Syllabus Usage (Skyline Instructors)

Using the On-line Student Progress Report

Skyline Soaring Club stores all of the records about a student's flight training record electronically. There is no need to print the forms at the end of this document, except for reference. After the flight instruction session, the instructor will automatically be notified by e-mail of any recent flights with his students. The instructor will score the flights as appropriate, scoring each section with a score 1 through 3. A score of "1" indicates that the content was introduced. A score of "2" indicates that the student performed the maneuver or procedure. A score of "3" indicates that the candidate has performed the maneuver or procedure to the solo standards stated in the appropriate lesson plan. Scores of "4" are reserved for post-solo students directly training for their Private Pilot Practical Test.

Different scores

Flights where there is significant need to address problem areas on the next flight are marked with a red exclamation point. This is not meant as a failure, but rather as an urgent indicator to the next instructor that this is an area that needs focus and attention. Once the instructor completes his report, he will be given an opportunity to write an optional essay describing details of the lesson session.

The completed lesson report is mailed to the Skyline Soaring Club instructors, as well as the student for future review and planning. The student may view his progress page at any time, and get a clear indication of what lesson segments are still required before solo flight is considered.

Syllabus Use (Non-Skyline Instructors)

Using the Training Syllabus on Paper

For non-Skyline instructors, tracking a student's progress can be done by the two forms at the end of this document.

Use the Training Syllabus Tracking Sheet to keep track of which instructors have signed off a particular section as demonstrated at solo quality. When the student has completed all areas listed as required for solo flight, the instructor and student will sign the end of the document, indicating that all instruction has been given to the satisfaction of the student.

Use the Flight Progress Tracking Sheet to track individual flights. Multiple copies of these two pages will be necessary to fully document the flight record of the student. At the right-most column of this sheet, indicate the maximum score achieved for each lesson segment. In the following example, Frank Schüler has had a total of 11 flights with 6 different instructors (which can often happen in a club environment). Each instructor gave a score of 1, 2, or 3 depending on the student's progress.

Demonstration of filling out the form

Student solo is not permitted until a score of "3" has been documented and achieved for all sections listed as required for solo flight. Refer to the Training Syllabus Tracking Sheet for a list of all sections required for student solo. Once all of the appropriate sections have been demonstrated at the solo proficiency level or higher, both the student and instructor will sign the affirmation statement. This statement can be found at the end of the Training Syllabus Tracking Sheet. This indicates that both the instructor and student have successfully accomplished the full training program, and that it has been completed to their satisfaction. The instructor will keep the original signed document, and prepare a copy for the student to keep for his or her own record keeping.

Sample QR Code

Using QR Codes

Each section in the printed version of the training syllabus contains a QRcode. The QR code is located in the upper right hand corner of each section of the syllabus (also shown here). These QR codes are included as a convenience for smart-phone equipped instructors or students who are using a printed copy of the syllabus, and are not near an Internet connected computer.  While using a smart phone with a QR code reader, the savvy instructor or student can pull up the online copy of that particular page of the syllabus.  Use this to follow any hyperlinks or videos that the lesson plan may include.    


Materials List

Before or immediately after your first lesson

Glider Pilot Logbook

Soaring Society of America
 SSA Logbook  Before or immediately after the first lesson, the student must have a Pilot Logbook. The Glider Pilot logbook is generally given to the student as a part of the FAST package. The logbook can also be purchased from the club, or purchased online from the Soaring Society of America for a modest price.   Your instructor is required to legibly record any flight and ground instruction in your log book, so it is required to be with you each time you have a lesson at the club. 

Glider Flying Handbook

FAA

FAA Glider Flying Handbook cover

This book is published by the Federal Aviation Administration. It is considered public domain. In electronic form, this book is available for free. The FAA publishes the entire book as a low resolution PDF, or as higher resolution versions by each chapter.  Get the latest electronic version of the GFH by going to 

https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aircraft/glider_handbook/ .

Many of the lesson plans included in this syllabus reference certain pages in this book. You can purchase a copy of this book from the Soaring Society of America for $29.00. 

Pilots Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge

FAA

Pilot Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge cover This book is published by the Federal Aviation Administration. It is considered public domain. In electronic form, this book is available for free.  This book focuses on flying airplanes. This book is included as a resource for soaring mainly because some key subjects are not adequately covered in the Glider Flying Handbook. It is not recommended that you purchase this book. Lesson plans in this training syllabus that include topics only covered in the Pilot Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge link directly to the appropriate chapter.  You are not expected to purchase this book, but you may find it a handy reference for many topics in aviation.

Everybody's First Gliding Book

Bob Wander

This book serves as an exciting introduction to soaring.  It prepares you for the concepts of how to be a better student, and references many resources outside of the Materials List included in this syllabus.  It is available for purchase at the Soaring Society of America, it is a part of the FAST package from the SSA , and also available for purchase from our club.  

Pre-Solo Materials

Student Pilot License: As you near your first solo, you will need a student pilot's certificate.  If you are already a rated pilot seeking an additional category glider rating, your pilot's license will suffice. Since 1 April 2016, all student pilots must go through a TSA background check.  Begin the process for getting a student pilot certificate by signing up with the FAA's Integrated Airman Certification and Rating Application (IACRA) at https://iacra.faa.gov/IACRA/Default.aspx .    

FAR/AIM As you progress through the training program, it is highly recommended that you own a copy of the FAR/AIM.  All of the regulations are online and linked throughout this syllabus, but you should still have the book for ready reference and reading.

Local Sectional Chart You must be familiar with the airspace around our airport. There are some very complicated and dangerous airspaces near to our field, and owning a sectional is an important step toward understanding the airspace and air traffic in our area.  You may use on-line sectional tools such as skyvector.com, but you may not use those charts for in-flight navigation.  There are two sectional charts for our area.  The Washington Sectional covers the airspace to the east and south of our base of operations.  The Cincinnatti chart covers the areas to the west.  These charts can be purchased at our FBO, or on-line. The FAA provides an excellent resource on how to read aeronautical charts in the 12th edition of the Chart Users Guide

FAA Knowledge Exam Materials

If this is your first pilot rating, or if this is your first pilot rating at the Private Pilot level, you will need to complete a knowledge test, administered by the FAA. If you already have a Private Pilot rating for any powered aircraft, you are not required to pass the FAA knowledge exam for gliders.  Please see the FAA's general information about the knowledge tests (https://www.faa.gov/pilots/testing/).

It is strongly recommended that pilots who are nearing their first solo should have their FAA knowledge test taken and passed before or immediately following their first solo. Any delays in taking the knowledge test can severly impact the student's progress toward a rating. 

There are two paths to passing the knowledge exam. The most effective technique is to enroll in a training course that focuses on the private pilot knowledge exam for gliders.  If no such training course exists in your area, you may do a home-study course.  If you are going through with the home-study course, please follow these recommended actions.

Once you have studied the material and are comfortable with the contents, have a Skyline Soaring Club instructor endorse you to take the written test. Find an FAA-approved Testing center with this FAA document: https://www.faa.gov/training_testing/testing/media/test_centers.pdf . Most testing centers usually charge around $150 to take the written test. 

FAA Practical Test Preparation

The practical test is the culmination of all that you have learned during the training process -- both they activity of flying along with the knowledge required by the FAA to be a safe airman. One way to make sure that all topics are covered during the study process is to use a test prep book specifically tailored toward the glider pilot practical test.  Bob Wander's 'Made Easy' books cover this very well.  There are separate books preparing the Private Pilot candidate and Commercial Pilot candidates. 

 

 

Preflight Planning/Overview

Lesson Objective

During this lesson, the student/candidate will become familiar with the preparation required before walking out to the flight line. This includes weather preparation, understanding weather services, go/no decision, required documents for the pilot.

Regulatory Requirement

Pre-Solo pilot (Student Pilot and Transition Pilots): §61.87(i)(1)
Private Pilot Test Candidate: PTS Area of Operation IA, IB

Content

See Also

Completion Standards

When complete, the student will

Prerequisite Study

Required Homework

 

 

Aeromedical Factors Discussion

Lesson Objective

During this lesson, the instructor will have a candid discussion with the student/candidate with regards to Medical, Psychological, and Physiological factors related to safe aviation. Glider pilots are not required to have any medical certifications, but this does not mean that a pilot can fly gliders while under the influences of certain medications or while suffering from certain physiological issues.  The discussion with the instructor MUST include a review of illnesses, congenital, acute and chronic; as well as a discussion of the pilot's current medications.  This should be done early in the pilot's training program. 

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

When complete, the student will

Prerequisite Study

Other Resources

The FAA has a list compiled of approved and non-approved medications. This list can be viewed on the AOPA website  (limited to AOPA members only). A free list can be found at http://www.leftseat.com/medcat1.htm . The SSC Instructor corps HIGHLY recommends that you compare these lists with your current medications early in your training program.   

 

 

Use of Controls

Lesson Objective

During this lesson, the Instructor will present the use of the controls in the cockpit and their effect on the control surfaces. In addition, any time there is an exchange of controls, the student and instructor must use the FAA-approved method of "Positive Exchange of Controls." 

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

When complete, the student will

Prerequisite Study

 

 

Cockpit Familiarization

Lesson Objective

The instructor will teach the components of the cockpit, instruments and seating.

Regulatory Requirement

None

Content

Completion Standards

When complete, the student will

Prerequisite Study

 

 

Positive Control Check

Lesson Objective

The instructor will teach the procedure of the "Positive Control Check"

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

When complete, the student will be able to demonstrate a satisfactory positive control check

Prerequisite Study

 

 

Release Mechanisms

Lesson Objective

The instructor will teach the student/candidate the function of the tow release, including the differences in the Schweizer and Tost release mechanisms

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to 

Schweizer Tow Hookup

Prerequisite Study

 

 

Glider Ground Handling -- Hangar to Flightline

Lesson Objective

The instructor will teach the student/candidate the proper procedure of extracting the aircraft from the hangar, and bringing the aircraft to the flight line

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform

The student must be able to explain

Prerequisite Study

Recommended Study

 

 

Glider Ground Handling -- Flightline to Hangar

Lesson Objective

The instructor will teach the student/candidate the proper procedure of returning the glider to its slot in the hangar without damage to the aircraft

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform

The student must be able to explain

Prerequisite Study

Recommended Study

 

 

Pre Takeoff Checklist

Lesson Objective

During this lesson, the student/candidate will learn the procedures for a successful pre-takeoff checklist, including the importance of each item on the checklist.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform either of the club standard checklists (at the student's preference) without prompting from the instructor

The student must be able to explain

Prerequisite Study

 

Attitude Flying/Scanning

Lesson Objective

During this lesson, the student will understand the need for proper scanning for aircraft, using attitude to judge and determine speed and bank.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

When complete, the student will

Prerequisite Study

Also see

 

Glider Daily Inspection

Lesson Objective

The student/candidate will learn the importance of the glider daily inspection, the correct procedure and habits of a successful preflight.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

Prerequisite Study

Recommended Study

 

 

Airport Procedures

Lesson Objective

During this lesson, the student/candidate will learn the appropriate airport procedures, including the shape of the traffic pattern. The student will learn the airport markings, and procedures for avoiding runway incursions. Candidates for the Practical test will be expected to know about Land and Hold Short (LAHSO) procedures at controlled airports.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

When complete, the student will understand the role and function of the pattern, and most importantly the complete flexibility of the pattern. The student will also understand that the pattern is not the goal, getting the aircraft on the ground is the goal. The student will be able to explain:

Prerequisite Study

Recommended Study

Further Study

 

Cockpit Management

Lesson Objective

Cockpit management relates to the organization of items in the cockpit, the briefing of passengers on the cockpit controls and use of seat harnesses. The PTS requires that candidates demonstrate the ability to brief passengers in the use of seatbelts and seat harnesses, as well as the ability to manage loose items in the cockpit.

Also of critical importance, the student will learn the appropriate actions to be taken if the canopy opens while in-flight.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

When complete, the student

Prerequisite Study

 

Aerotow Release

Lesson Objective

The instructor will teach the student the appropriate procedure for aerotow release.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

When complete, the student will be able to:

Prerequisite Study

 

 

Visual Signals

Lesson Objective

The candidate must know all of the ground signals used by the line crew, for different circumstances, such as take up slack, open and close the tow hook, hold, begin takeoff, stop, release towline, and emergency stop.

The candidate must also know all of the SSA standard signals used between the glider and towplane.

Regulatory Requirement

Student Pilot: 14 CFR §61.87(i)(11)
Private Pilot Test Candidate: PTS Area of Operation IIE

Content

The student/candidate will know: The following hand signals:

The following in-flight visual signals:

Completion Standards

When complete, the student will know and be able to demonstrate all of the signals listed above.

Prerequisite Study

Additional Study

 

 

Normal Takeoff

Lesson Objective

The student will learn the procedures and skills necessary for a takeoff on aerotow. This includes the initial rollout to the beginning of the climb-out.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Video Example

Here is an illustration of a normal takeoff, a high-definition video running 1:26.  No two takeoffs will look exactly alike, but this will give you an idea of the view from the cockpit if you've never seen one: The Takeoff .

Completion Standards

When complete, the student will:

Before the glider takes off:

Before the towplane takes off, and after the glider is airborne:

After the towplane is airborne:

Other factors to safe take-off

Prerequisite Study

 

 

Normal Aerotow

Lesson Objective

The candidate must learn the correct procedures for safe conduct of normal aerotow procedures.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

The candidate will learn:

Completion Standards

When complete, the student will

Note to students: This will take several lessons to accomplish.

Prerequisite Study

 

Straight Glide

Lesson Objective

The candidate must be able to fly the glider on a specified heading, and continually maintain that heading, at a desired airspeed of the instructor's choosing. The candidate must do so with smooth control inputs, so that the glider is in constant coordinated flight.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

The student will learn the elements of straight flight, which include

Completion Standards

When complete, the student will

Note: The criteria for evaluation in this section are taken directly from the PTS.

Prerequisite Study

 

 

Shallow, Medium, Steep Turns

Lesson Objective

The candidate will learn the elements related to turns, specifically; shallow, medium, and steep turns. Included in this lesson plan is the relationship of dihedral effect to shallow turns, and the effect of the overbanking tendency on steep turns. It is critical to note that the candidate must always be vigilant for air traffic, and will with each and every turn, look for air traffic before initiating any turn.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

The candidate will learn:

Completion Standards

When complete, the student will

Note: All criteria for evaluation are taken directly from the Private Pilot Practical Test Standards.

Prerequisite Study

 

 

Normal Landing

Lesson Objective

During this lesson the instructor will demonstrate a normal landing. The student will perform supervised landings, and when proficient, will be able to execute a normal landing without coaching or intervention from the instructor. To achieve the objective of this lesson, it will certainly take many flights.

For the purposes of training, the term Normal Landing in this lesson plan indicates benign atmospheric condition, and does not include crosswind, tailwind, or landing in strong headwinds.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Video Example

Here is an illustration of a reasonable pattern and landing, running 5:29 (you can skip the approach if you're more interested in the final/flare portion).  It's not a perfect landing (a little off the centerline) but provides the view of a stabilized approach and flare. A Normal Landing.

Completion Standards

When complete, the student will

 

 

Aerotow High-Low Transition

Lesson Objective

The student will learn how to perform from high tow to low tow, and back to high tow, while transitioning directly through the tow plane's wake.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform

Common Errors

Prerequisite Study

 

 

Before-Landing Checklist

Lesson Objective

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform

The student must be able to explain

Prerequisite Study

 

 

Traffic Pattern

Lesson Objective

The student will learn the shape, go ahead-points, and most of all, the flexibility of the pattern.

Non-Goals

The student will NOT focus on bad habits such as rigid adherence to specific altitudes at certain points in the pattern. It must also be stressed that rigid, square perfection is NOT the goal of the pattern. Every pattern is different, and it must be viewed as a tool to the primary and ultimate goal -- getting to the runway safely.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform

The student must be able to explain

Prerequisite Study

 

 

Minimum Controllable Airspeed

Lesson Objective

The student will learn how to fly the glider on the cusp of a stall -- without allowing the glider to actually stall. If performed correctly, the glider will show many or all of the six signs of a stall. Also, the student will be expected to perform shallow-banked turns while flying in Minimum Controllable Airspeed (MCA).

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform

Prerequisite Study

 

 

Turns to a Heading

Lesson Objective

The student will learn the procedures for turning out on a heading. The student will also learn the different types of error with a magnetic compass.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform

The student must be able to 

Prerequisite Study

Further Study

 

 

Forward Stall

Lesson Objective

The student will learn what causes a stall, how to perform a stall, how to recover from a stall. This lesson includes stalls with brakes open. This lesson does not include turning or cross-controlled stalls.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform

The student must be able to explain

Prerequisite Study

 

Turning Stall

Lesson Objective

The student will learn the entry and recovery from a stall with and without airbrakes

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform

The student must be able to explain

Prerequisite Study

 

 

Spirals, Descents

Lesson Objective

The student will learn the hazards of the "Graveyard Spiral", the benefits of the "benign spiral", entry and recovery techniques from spiral descents. Also, the student will learn to expedite a return with a spiral descent.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform

The student must be able to explain

Prerequisite Study

Recommended Study

 

Collision, Wind Shear & Wake Turbulence Avoidance

Lesson Objective

The student will review scanning techniques. The student will learn of the hazards of wind shear; the student will learn the hazards of wake turbulence.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform

The student must be able to explain

Prerequisite Study

Recommended Study

 

 

Radio Procedures

Lesson Objective

Our soaring environment requires us to use the correct radio procedures to interact with the Unicom, ground, and communicate with the towpilot.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Note: Even though the vast majority of glider pilots will never see ATC light signals in practice, the PTS states that instructors are required to teach ATC light signals to Practical Test candidates. The PTS candidate should at least be aware of ATC light signals. View §91.125.

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform

The student must be able to:

Prerequisite Study

Samples

Some Sample radio calls might be:

Further Study

 

Minimum Sink

Lesson Objective

The lesson will learn the minimum sink speeds, how they relate to bank angle, and the importance of using the correct minimum sink speeds.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform

The student must be able to explain

Prerequisite Study

 

Slips: Forward, Side, Turning (w/ & w/o airbrakes)

Lesson Objective

The student must learn and demonstrate slips before solo. Proper slip technique must also be demonstrated on the practical exam. The student will get the opportunity to practice slips, and must understand the difference between the different types of slips. The student will also learn when the use of a slip is appropriate, and when it is not appropriate.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform

The student must be able to explain

Prerequisite Study

 

Best L/D; Speed to Fly

Lesson Objective

The lesson will learn the concept of speed to fly -- the most appropriate speed given lift, headwind, tailwind or sink. 

Regulatory Requirement

Materials 

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform

The student must be able to explain

Prerequisite Study

Further Study

 

Boxing the Wake

Lesson Objective

The lesson will allow the student to demonstrate manuvering behind the tow plane to different established positiong with regard to the tow plane's wake.  The maneuvers will be done in a fashion that is described by the FAA's Practical Test Standards: "Maneuvers the glider, while on tow, slightly outside the towplane’s wake in a rectangular, box-like pattern."

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Procedures

There is no rush for this procedure. It is more important to take your time and get to all of the points on tow in a controlled and precise manner.  As a matter of convention and habit, Skyline Instructors and students usually combine the tasks of the Hi-Low Tow transition with the boxing of the wake with the following procedure:

The maneuver can be in either a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction.  

During the practical test the examiner may ask for you to perform the maneuvers of "High-Low Tow Transition" separately from "Boxing the Wake." In this circumstance, boxing the wake does NOT include transitioning through the wake at the beginning of the maneuver.  The candidate would maneuver around the wake without ever making contact with the tow plane's wake. 

If the box-wake maneuver is being performed separately from the Hi-Low Tow Transition, execute the following procedure. The following example is for clockwise direction. Either direction is possible. 

Generally speaking, the low tow position behind the Pawnee is indicated when the horizontal stabilizer is lined up with the tow pilot's rear view mirror. Behind the Husky, the low tow position is achieved when the elevator is lined up with the wing. For both tow planes, the glider pilot knows that he has gone far enough to the side when the tail wheel and main wheels appear to line up. 

Completion Standards

The candidate must

  1. Exhibit knowledge of the elements related to boxing the wake (maneuvering around the wake).
  2. Maneuver the glider, while on tow, slightly outside the towplane’s wake in a rectangular, box-like pattern.
  3. Maintain proper control and coordination.

Prerequisite Study

Hints

Video Illustration

 

Crosswind Takeoff

Lesson Objective

The student must be able to take off with slight to moderate cross-winds.  During the takeoff roll, the pilot must exhibit control to maintain runway centerline.  After take-off, but before the towplane has left the ground, the candidate must crab into the wind to maintain runway centerline.  After the towplane is in the air, the glider should resume normal high-tow position.   During this maneuver, the candidate must maintain appropriate position at all times. 

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to normal and crosswind takeoff, including configurations and tow positions.
  2. Uses proper signals for takeoff.
  3. Lifts off at an appropriate airspeed.
  4. Maintains proper position until towplane lifts off.
  5. Maintains directional control and proper wind-drift correction thoughout the takeoff.
  6. Maintains proper alignment with the towplane.

Prerequisite Study

 

Crosswind Landing

Lesson Objective

The student must be able to land with slight to moderate cross-winds.  The pilot must exhibit control to maintain runway centerline on approach, flare, and touchdown.  On landing and roll-out, the candidate must maintain runway centerline, despite the crosswind.  The candidate may use slip or crab to correct for the crosswind component on the approach. 

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to normal and crosswind approach and landing procedures.
  2. Adjusts flaps, spoilers, or dive brakes, as appropriate.
  3. Maintains recommended approach airspeed, +10/-5 knots.
  4. Maintains crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing.
  5. Makes smooth, timely, and positive control application during
  6. the roundout and touchdown.
  7. Touches down smoothly within the designated landing area, with no appreciable drift, and with the longitudinal axis aligned with the desired landing path, stopping short of and within 200 feet (120 meters) of a designated point.
  8. Maintains control during the after-landing roll.
  9. Completes appropriate checklists.

Prerequisite Study

Video Illustration

 

Unassisted Takeoff

Lesson Objective

Although this is not required by an of the Practical Test Standards, nor is it required by 61.87 for pre-solo knowledge, knowing how to take-off without a wing-runner can be a useful skill to have.  The candidate will learn the procedures for a safe take-off without a wing-runner, and will learn when it is safer not to take-off without a wing-runner (such as from a CG-tow-hook only glider)  

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

 

Covered Instrument Landings

Lesson Objective

The student will learn what to do if some of the flight instruments become inoperable.  If the alitmeter becomes inoperative, the student will use visual cues to determine altitude, and guide the glider to a safe landing.  If the airspeed indicator stops working, then the candidate will use reference to attitude and slipstream noise to judge airspeed. 

The student should also be able to explain the situations which could lead to each of these instruments failing.  

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform

Prerequisite Study

 

Precision Landings and Stops

Lesson Objective

This lesson will show the student the ability to land on a specific point, and stop within a specified distance, determined by the instructor.  This is training for the event of an unplanned off-airport landing.  

Regulatory Requirement

Completion Standards

The student will complete this task when he/she exhibits  knowledge of the elements related to a simulated off-airport landing, including selection of a suitable landing area and the procedures used to accomplish an off-airport landing.  The simulated off-airport landing can be demonstrated by a landing on the grass. The precision touch-down and stops can be evaluated with markers in the grass.  We usually use four paint can lids spaced 30 paces apart, lined up on the center of the grass strip, touching down in an area adjacent to the runway numbers on the paved runway. The usual stop is somewhere adjacent to the fuel farm

Prerequisite Study

Further Study

 

Slips to Landing (w/ & w/o airbrakes)

Lesson Objective

This lesson is to have the student demonstrate the ability to use either a forward slip (previously practiced at altitude in Lesson 4d), on the final approach.  Use the forward slip primarily for altitude loss, and the side slip for runway alignment or lateral re-positioning.  

Regulatory Requirement

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform

Prerequisite Study

Video Illustration

Also See

 

 

Thermal

Lesson Objective

In our club, most of the flights that last longer than 30 minutes exploit thermal lift to gain or sustain altitude.  This lesson plan introduces thermal soaring techniques, predicting thermal behavior, and gives the candidate the ability to locate and use thermal lift.  This lesson also will give techniques to return to a lost thermal. 

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

Practical Test Standards for Thermal Flight: 

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to thermal soaring. Recognizes the indications of, and the presence of, a thermal.
  2. Analyzes the thermal structure and determines the direction to turn to remain within the thermal.
  3. Exhibits coordinated control and planning when entering and maneuvering to remain within the thermal.
  4. Applies correct techniques to re-enter the thermal, if lift is lost.
  5. Remains oriented to ground references, wind, and other aircraft.
  6. Maintains proper airspeeds in and between thermals.

The student must be able to perform

The student must be able to explain

Prerequisite Study

Recommended Study

Further Reading

 

Ridge

Lesson Objective

Most students do not get to experience ridge soaring, even at our club.  Skyline Soaring offers an excellent training ridge nearby. During the Spring and Fall months, the nearby Massanutten ridge comes alive with strong lift, safe land-out fields.  Unfortunately, this  activity also is accompanied by hazards. 

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

Practical Standards for Ridge Soaring:

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to ridge and slope soaring.
  2. Recognizes terrain features and wind conditions which create orographic lift.
  3. Enters the area of lift properly.
  4. Estimates height and maintains a safe distance from the terrain.
  5. Exhibits smooth, coordinated control, and planning to remain within the area of lift.
  6. Uses correct technique to re-enter the area of lift, if lift is lost.

 

Prerequisite Study

 Recommended Study

 

Wave

Lesson Objective

Wave Soaring is not common throughout the United States, especially in the flatlands of the midwest and southeast.  However rare wave lift may be for some regions, Skyline Soaring is blessed with 20 to 30 flyable days with wave lift every year.  However, since we operate only on weekends and occasional weekdays, the total number of days we can use this lift is reduced.   During this lesson plan, the student will learn the basics of wave formation, techniques of soaring in wave, and the hazards associated with rotor turbulence and the extreme sink of the lee side of the wave.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

Practical Test Standards:  

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to wave soaring.
  2. Locates and enters the area of lift.
  3. Exhibits smooth, coordinated control, and planning to remain within the area of lift.
  4. Uses correct technique to re-enter the area of lift, if lift is lost.
  5. Remains oriented to ground references, wind, and other aircraft.
  6. Recognizes and avoids areas of possible extreme turbulence.
  7. Maintains proper airspeeds.
  8. Coordinates with ATC, as appropriate.

 The student must be able to explain

Prerequisite Study

Recommended Study

Further Reading

 

Slack Line

Lesson Objective

Inevitably, the glider pilot may be faced with the situation of slack line in the tow rope. These situations happen especially during gusty conditions, during towplane malfunctions (towplane decelerating),  getting terribly out of position, rapid towplane banking, or just flying cross-country on aerotow.   The instructor may call the tow pilot and ask him to reduce his rate of climb, and will demonstrate getting into slack rope situations, and how to deal with them smoothly.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

Practical Test Standards:
 Objective. To determine

  1. Exhibits knowledge hazards, and
  2. Recognizes smooth corrective situations.

The student must be able to perform

The student must be able to explain

Prerequisite Study

Video Illustration

 

Aerotow Emergency Procedures

Lesson Objective

Aerotow emergency procedures include: glider can not release, towplane can not release, towplane power failure (at various times in the flight), abort of take-off near the ground, rope breaks.  During this lesson segment, the student will learn the tools of recovery from these situations.  

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

Practical Test Standards:

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to aerotow abnormal occurrences, for various situations, such as—
    1. towplane power loss during takeoff.
    2. towline break.
    3. towplane power failure at altitude.
    4. glider release failure.
    5. glider and towplane release failure.
  2. Demonstrates simulated aerotow abnormal occurrences as required by the examiner.

The student must be able to perform

The student must be able to explain

Prerequisite Study

 

V-Speeds

Lesson Objective

The candidate will learn the differences between Maneuvering Speed (VA), Normal Operating Speed (VNO), and Never-Exceed Speed(VNE). The candidate will identify what hazards are associated with each airspeed.  The instructor and student will fly together in dual practice, and accelerate to VA, for at least a few moments, to get a feel for the stick sensitivity at this speed.  Flight to VNE is NOT required. 

Regulatory Requirement

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform

The student must be able to:

Prerequisite Study

Further Study

 

Rope Breaks

Lesson Objective

During the normal course of operating gliders on aerotow, the rope occasionally breaks before the pilot desires to release from the towplane.  The aim of this lesson is to immediately react to the rope break and land the glider in a safe manner.   The term PT3 (Premature Termination of The Tow) is often used instead of "rope break" to include all modes of failure included in this lesson plan.  Ideally, the candidate will have performed at least three PT3 flights, each one in a different mode of flight.  At around 50 feet (with straight ahead landing).  At or around 200-300 feet, for a 180 return-to-base, and above 300 feet for an abbreviated pattern. 

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to

Prerequisite Study

Recommended Study

 

 

Pilot Induced Oscillations

Lesson Objective

It is common for new pilots to experience Pilot-Induced Oscillations, usually in the pitch axis.  The PIO can happen in any phase of flight, but the most dangerous is in the final moments of flight, or during the ground roll-out.  The instructor will discuss strategies with the student on minimizing the probability of having a high-energy landing turn into a PIO that can damage the tail boom. 

Regulatory Requirement

none

Content

Completion Standards

The candidate must be able to consistently land the glider at minimum energy (with spoilers deployed).  For the ASK-21 and Grob 103 trainers, our club instructors emphasize the two point landing technique: tail wheel and main wheel landing simultaneously.  The "fly-it-on" landing strategy is highly discouraged for these gliders, although note that it is appropriate for this technique when landing Schweizer gliders. 

Prerequisite Study

 

Downwind Landing

Lesson Objective

Optimally, gliders will land into the wind. Occasionally, the glider must be landed with a tailwind.  This lesson plan covers the issues related to a downwind landing. On downwind approaches, a shallower approach angle should be used, depending on obstacles in the approach path. Use the spoilers/dive brakes and perhaps a forward slip as necessary to achieve the desired glide path.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform

The student must be able to explain

Prerequisite Study

 

Landing Roll-out and Clearing Runway

Lesson Objective

This lesson focuses on the portion of the flight after touching down on the runway. Unlike most glider operations in the US, this club operates mostly on the paved surface, which has the extra hazard of runway lights.  While operating at Front Royal, it is critical to maintain a roll-out along the runway's center-line.  Clearing the runway MUST never be done before the glider has come to a complete stop.  

Regulatory Requirement

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform:

 

Assembly

Lesson Objective

For most privately-owned gliders, assembly is a daily part of the glider flying ritual.  Understanding how to assemble the glider safely is critical to safety.  Logistics often prevent the candidate from assembling the club's two seaters, but the candidate should at the very least be knowledgeable in the assembly and disassembly procedures of the club's two seaters.  The task of assembly can be done on a private member's glider instead. 

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform

The student must be able to explain

Prerequisite Study

 

Post-Flight Inspection

Lesson Objective

After the glider is done flying for the day, it needs to be inspected to see if any new damage has happened during the flying day. Also, it is important to wash the wings with clean rags and water to remove any dead bugs that have accumulated on the wing surfaces 

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform

The student must be able to explain

 

Disassembly

Lesson Objective

For most privately-owned gliders, assembly is a daily part of the glider flying ritual. By the end of the flying day, or when the glider has made an off-airport landing, the glider must be correctly disassembled and stored in its trailer correctly. 

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform


The student must be able to explain

Prerequisite Study

 

 

Pre-Solo Written Test

Lesson Objective

Students are required by 61.87(b) to pass a written test. The test must address the student pilot's knowledge of-

applicable sections of parts 61 and 91 of this chapter; airspace rules and procedures for the airport where the solo flight will be performed; and flight characteristics and operational limitations for the make and model of aircraft to be flown.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

 

Special Awareness Training

Lesson Objective

All pilots operating aircraft within 60 nautical miles of the Washington VOR/DME must have successfully completed the FAA's Special Awareness Training.  This training is only on-line, and successful completion results in a certificate.  This must be done by all pilots in Skyline Soaring Club.  This training need only be accomplished once. 

Regulatory Requirement

Content

 

Checkride Rating Endorsement

Lesson Objective

The objective of this lesson is the completion of training for the Private Pilot or Commercial Pilot certificate with a glider category rating as evidenced by an instructor sign-off for the practical test.

Regulatory Requirements

Content

The instructor will certify completion of all training requirements by verifying that all lesson elements 1 through 7 of the Student Progress Report are completed to the Rating level.

The instructor will verify that the student has passed the required knowledge test.

The instructor will conduct a minimum of three flights with the student preparatory for the practical test, covering the required elements of §61.107 for the Private Pilot certificate or §61.127 for the Commercial Pilot certificate.

The instructor will verify that the student’s logbook contains signoffs for aero tow, glider assembly/disassembly, and solo flight in the glider to be used for the practical test, and verify that the student’s student license is correctly endorsed.

The instructor will assist the student in the preparation of the Application for an Airman Certificate using IACRA (https://iacra.faa.gov/iacra/).  Paper versions of the 8710-1 application are no longer accepted. 

Required Endorsements

  1. Current solo endorsement for glider category, in the glider to be used for the practical test
  2. Aerotow launch procedures endorsement 
  3. Written test report, signed by the instructor indicating training has been given for the missed question areas
  4. Endorsement for taking the practical test

Endorsement Examples

Solo Endorsement for a Student Pilot:

Required by § 61.87(c). AC 61-65G A.6 and / or AC 61-65G A.7 This endorsement must be current!

I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received the required training to qualify for solo flying. I have determined [he or she] meets the applicable requirements of § 61.87(n) and is proficient to make solo flights in [M/M].
/s/ [date] J. J. Jones 987654321CFI Exp. 12-31-19 
- or -
I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received the required training to qualify for solo flying. I have determined that [he or she] meets the applicable requirements of § 61.87(p) and is proficient to make solo flights in [M/M].
/s/ [date] J. J. Jones 987654321CFI Exp. 12-31-19 

Solo Endorsement for Transition Pilots:

Required when acting as PIC of an aircraft in solo operations when the pilot does not hold an
appropriate category/class rating: § 61.31(d)(2). AC 61-65G A.71

I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received the training as required by § 61.31(d)(2) to serve as a pilot in command in a [specific category and class of aircraft]. I have determined that [he or she] is prepared to solo that [M/M] aircraft. Limitations: [optional].
/s/ [date] J. J. Jones 987654321CFI Exp. 12-31-19

Launch procedures for operating a glider:

Required by § 61.31(j). AC 61-65G A.78

I certify that [First name, MI, Last name], [grade of pilot certificate], [certificate number], has received the required training in a [glider M/M] for [launch procedure]. I have determined that [he or she] is proficient in [list the launch procedure].
/s/ [date] J. J. Jones 987654321CFI Exp. 12-31-19

Endorsements for Private Pilot Practical Test:

Prerequisites for practical test: Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 61, § 61.39(a)(6)(i) and (ii).  
AC 61-65G,

I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received and logged training time within 2 calendar-months preceding the month of application in preparation for the practical test and [he or she] is prepared for the required practical test for the issuance of [applicable] certificate.
/s/ [date] J. J. Jones 987654321CFI Exp. 12-31-19

Review of deficiencies identified on airman knowledge test: § 61.39(a)(6)(iii) as required. AC 61-65G A.2

I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has demonstrated satisfactory knowledge of the subject areas in which [he or she] was deficient on the [applicable] airman knowledge test.
/s/ [date] J. J. Jones 987654321CFI Exp. 12-31-19

Flight proficiency/practical test: §§ 61.103(f), 61.107(b), and 61.109. AC 61-65G A.33

I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received the required training in accordance with §§ 61.107 and 61.109. I have determined [he or she] is prepared for the [name of] practical test.
/s/ [date] J. J. Jones 987654321CFI Exp. 12-31-19 

Endorsements for Commercial Pilot Practical Test:

Prerequisites for practical test: Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 61, § 61.39(a)(6)(i) and (ii).  
AC 61-65G A.35

I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received the required training of §§ 61.127 and 61.129. I have determined that [he or she] is prepared for the [name of] practical test.
/s/ [date] J. J. Jones 987654321CFI Exp. 12-31-19

Review of deficiencies identified on airman knowledge test: § 61.39(a)(6)(iii) as required. AC 61-65G A.2

I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has demonstrated satisfactory knowledge of the subject areas in which [he or she] was deficient on the [applicable] airman knowledge test.
/s/ [date] J. J. Jones 987654321CFI Exp. 12-31-19

Required by §§ 61.123(e), 61.127, and 61.129. AC 61-65G A.35

I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received the required training of §§ 61.127 and 61.129. I have determined that [he or she] is prepared for the [name of] practical test.
/s/ [date] J. J. Jones 987654321CFI Exp. 12-31-19

 

First Solo and the "A" Badge

Lesson Objective

Once you solo, you are well on your way to getting an "A" badge.   Receiving the "A" badge is not automatic.  All Skyline Soaring Club Instructors are certified Soaring Society of America Instructors (SSAI), and can issue you your first "A" badge after solo.

Regulatory Requirement

Completion Standards

Preflight Phase

Applicant Demonstrates Knowledge of:

Applicant Possesses:

Presolo Phase

Applicant Has Completed the Following Minimum Flight Training Program:

Required Sign-offs from the Instructor Before Solo

 

The "B" Badge

Lesson Objective

After solo, the Student/Candidate must demonstrate the ability to use lift sources to prolong a glider flight.

Regulatory Requirement

Completion Standards

Further Reading

 

The "C" Badge

Lesson Objective

After solo, the Student/Candidate must demonstrate the ability to use lift sources to prolong a glider flight.  There are also dual-flight requirements for the "C" badge.  

Regulatory Requirement

Completion Standards

Applicant has completed the following flight training:

Further Reading

 

The "Bronze" Badge

Lesson Objective

In order to do cross-country flight in any club requirement, club rules dictate that the candidate must have a sign-off for that cross-country flight.  A bronze badge meets many of the requirements, and demonstrates the candidates skills necessary from safe cross-country flight.

Regulatory Requirement

Completion Standards

Cross-Country Readiness

Applicant Must:

Further Reading

 

Spring Field Check

Lesson Objective

To assist members in achieving a reasonable level of proficiency and safety at the beginning of the soaring season, defined as the first day of operation following the mandatory spring Safety Seminar.

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Completion Standards

The member will demonstrate a level of safety in performance acceptable to the CFI conducting the review. 

Prerequisite Study

Further Reading

 

61.56 Flight Review

Lesson Objective

To assure that all Club members are fully compliant with the regulatory requirements (q.v.) for flight reviews, including biennial flight and ground training as appropriate to the member's ratings and status. 

Regulatory Requirement

Content

Review of general operating and flight rules of CFR 14 FAR 91; a review of maneuvers and procedures that, at the discretion of the CFI providing the review, are necessary for the safe exercise of the privileges of the member's certificate. It must include one hour of ground instruction covering part 91. The contents of the ground instruction are up to the instructor to decide. It must also include one hour of flight instruction. If one hour of flight instruction is not practical, glider pilots may substitute with at least three flights "to pattern altitude".

Pilots who hold a current flight instructors and who have satisfactorily completed a renewal of a flight instructor certificate under the provisions in §61.197 need not accomplish the one hour of ground training specified in paragraph are exempt from the one hour of ground instruction, as per 61.56(f). 

Completion Standards

The completion standards are at the discretion of the flight instructor providing the review.

Required Sign-offs for Flight Review

After the successful completion of the flight review, the instructor will indicate so with a logbook endorsement.  Below is a sample sign-off with text taken from FAA Advisory Circular 61-65G. The flight review is only valid for pilots possessing an airman rating with the glider category. 

NOTE: No logbook entry reflecting unsatisfactory performance on a flight review is required.

Prerequisite Study

Recommended Study

Training Syllabus Tracking Sheet

LessonPhase  FAR RequirementPTS AreaInstructor Sign-Off and Date
1  Before We Fly       
1a  Preflight Planning / Overview  61.87(i)(1)  I   
1b  Aeromedical Factors Discussion    I(E)   
1c  Use of Controls       
1d  Cockpit Familiarization       
1e  Positive Control Check  61.87(i)(1)  II(C)   
1f  Release Mechanisms  61.87(i)(1)  II(C)   
1g  Handling - Hangar to Flightline  61.87(i)(2)  II(B)   
1h  Handling - Flightline to Hangar  61.87(i)(2)  II(B)   
2  First Flights       
2a  Pre Takeoff Checklist  61.87(i)(1)  IV(A)   
2b  Attitude Flying / Scanning  61.87(i)(6)     
2c  Glider Daily Inspection  61.87(i)(1)  I, II(C)   
2d  Airport Procedures  61.87(i)(5)  III(A,B,C)   
2e  Cockpit Management    II(D)   
2f  Aerotow Release  61.87(i)(11)  IV(F)   
2g  Visual Signals  61.87(i)(11)  II(E)   
2h  Normal Takeoff  61.87(i)(3)  IV(B)   
2i  Normal Aerotow  61.87(i)(12)  IV(C)   
2j  Straight Glide  61.87(i)(4)  VII(A)   
2k  Shallow, Medium, Steep Turns  61.87(i)(4)  VII(C)   
2l  Normal Landing  61.87(i)(16)  IV(Q)   
3  Core Flights       
3a  Hi-Low Tow Transition  61.87(i)(12)  IV(C)   
3b  Before-landing Checklist  61.87(i)(16)  IV(Q)(8)   
3c  Traffic Pattern  61.87(i)(10,16)  IV(Q)   
3d  Minimum Controllable Airspeed  61.87(i)(8)  V(A), IX(A)   
3e  Turns to Heading    VII(B)   
3f  Forward Stall, with and without airbrakes  61.87(i)(14)  IX(B)   
3g  Turning Stall, with and without airbrakes  61.87(i)(14)  IX(B)   
3h  Spirals, Descents  61.87(i)(15)     
4  Advanced Skills       
4a  Collision, Windshear & Wake Turbulence Avoidance  61.87(i)(6)  IV(G)   
4b  Radio Procedures    III(A)   
4c  Minimum Sink  61.87(i)(8)  V(A)   
4d  Slips: Forward, Side, Turning  61.87(i)(7)  IV(R)   
4e  Best L/D; Speed-to-fly  61.87(i)(8)  V(B)   
4f  Boxing the Wake  61.87(i)(12)  IV(E)   
4g  Crosswind Takeoff  61.87(i)(3)  IV(B)   
4h  Crosswind Landing  61.87(i)(16)  IV(Q)   
4i  Unassisted Takeoff       
4j  Covered Instrument Landings  61.87(i)(9)  X(A)   
4k  Precision Landings and Stops  61.87(i)(16)  X(A)   
4l  Slips to Landing  61.87(i)(17)  IV(R)   
5  Soaring Techniques       
5a  Thermal  61.87(i)(18)  VI(A)   
5b  Ridge    VI(B)   
5c  Wave    VI(C)   
6  Unusual Attitudes and Emergencies       
6a  Slack Line  61.87(i)(9),(19)  IV(D)   
6b  Aerotow Emergency Procedures  61.87(i)(9),(19)  IV(G)   
6c  V-Speeds  61.87(i)(8)  V   
6d  Rope Breaks  61.87(i)(9),(19)  IV(G)   
6e  Pilot-Induced Oscillations       
7  Finishing Touches       
7a  Downwind Landing  61.87(i)(16)  IV(S)   
7b  Taxiing and Clearing Runway  61.87(i)(2)  XI   
7c  Assembly  61.87(i)(13)  II(A)   
7d  Postflight Inspection    XI(A)   
7e  Disassembly  61.87(i)(13)     
7f  Pre-Solo Written Test  61.87(b)     
7g  Special Awareness Training  91.161  91.161   
7h  Checkride Rating Endorsement    PTS p5   
8  Solo and Badges       
8a  First Solo and the A Badge       
8b  The B Badge       
8c  The C Badge       
8d  The Bronze Badge       
9  Continuing Training       
9a  Spring Field Check       
9b  Flight Review       
I affirm that I, __________________________________________________, 
have received satisfactory and complete instruction for solo flight, including 
all applicable topics listed above, and as also as defined in 14 CFR 61.87(i), 
61.107(a), and 61.107(b). 


Student's Signature, _____________________________________, Date ____________


Instructor's Signature, ____________________________________Date ____________.

Flight Progress Tracking Sheet

Student Name:
Instructor's Initials       Max
Date of Flight        
Number of Flights        
1aPreflight Planning        
1bAeromedical Factors        
1cUse of Controls        
1dCockpit Familiarization        
1ePositive Control Chk        
1fRelease Mechanisms        
1gHandling (to Flightline)        
1hHandling (to Hangar)        
2aPre Takeoff Checklist        
2bScanning, Attitude Flying        
2cPreflight Inspection        
2dAirport Procedures        
2eCockpit Management        
2fAerotow Release        
2gVisual Signals        
2hNormal Takeoff        
2iNormal Aerotow        
2jStraight Glide        
2kShallow, Medium, Steep Turns        
2lNormal Landing        
3aHi-Low Tow Transition        
3bBefore-landing Checklist        
3cTraffic Pattern        
3dMinimum Controllable Airspeed        
3eTurns to Heading        
3fForward Stall        
3gTurning Stall        
3hSpirals, Descents        
4aCollision, Windshear & Wake...        
4bRadio Procedures        
4cMinimum Sink        
4dSlips: Forward, Side, Turning        
4eBest L/D; Speed-to-fly        
4fBoxing the Wake        
4gCrosswind Takeoff        
4hCrosswind Landing        
4iUnassisted Takeoff        
4jCovered Instrument Landings        
4kPrecision Landings and Stops        
4lSlips to Landing        
5aThermal        
5bRidge        
5cWave        
6aSlack Line        
6bAerotow Emergency Procedures        
6cV-Speeds        
6dRope Breaks        
6ePilot-Induced Oscillations        
7aDownwind Landing        
7bTaxiing and Clearing Runway        
7cAssembly        
7dPostflight Inspection        
7eDisassembly        
7fPre-Solo Written Test        
7gSpecial Awareness Training        
7hCheckride Rating Endorsement        
8aFirst Solo, A Badge        
8bThe B Badge        
8cThe C Badge        
8dThe Bronze Badge        
9aSpring Field Check        
9bFlight Review